Assignment 1
During this assignment I will be covering a number of aspects relating to the counselling profession. I will be identifying the different forms of helping relationships and how counselling is a different form from the rest. I will also be defying what counselling actually is and means. Then I will go on to describe the key features which ensures that counselling takes place in a suitable and safe environment. I will then go on and talk about different forms of communication and skills used in helping relationships and how these skills might be used. Then last of all I will cover the barriers of communication and how to overcome these barriers.
Unit Y 1.2
Counselling is an activity that takes place when someone is troubled and wants to see help. Counsellors do this by developing an interpersonal relationship with the client that enables the client to develop self-understanding and to make changes in their lives. Professional counsellors work within a clearly contracted, principled relationship that enables individuals to receive assistance in exploring and resolving issues in their life.
Unit Y 1.1 & 1.3
We can see that this definition can apply to different types of relationships for example counsellor – client, parent – child and teacher – pupil relationship. There are several forms of helping relationship.

Firstly let??™s look at offering advice. A friend may come to you for advise if they feel you have the knowledge or have experienced a particular thing they are going through.. An example of this is, they may believe their ?  partner is ?  cheating on them but have no direct proof. They know you have gone through the same and want to know how you found out ?  and what you would do or would have done differently.

Another form off a helping relationship is offering practical help. A person has had an operation on their arm and is struggling getting washed and changed. To help them you offer to help bathe and dress them.

Yet another form is by offering guidance. It could be someone who is struggling with a decision or may be it is a younger relative being led astray in their crucial exam years at school. By concentrating on the good parts and offering lots of encouragement you could influence them and help them choose the right path.

Counselling is different from other forms of helping relationships because counselling helps the client to explore his/her difficulties and see more clearly, it also facilitates to see the problem from a different point of view/perspective. It is also Non-judgemental. It is based on confidence, takes place in a proper environment. Requires listening skills and does not give any answer, helps the client to find his proper answer and have regular sessions including time limit. It is also Confidential but has its limitations due to some procedures that have to be taken care. Normally at the first session a contract is established to clear all boundaries and doubts. Has to be done by a professional and has supervision.
Unit F 1.1
Communication is important in relationships as it allows us to share our interest, concerns, support each other; organize our lives and make decisions; and it allows us to work together. Effective communication is based on the way we talk and listen, and how we respond and our body language. We can all learn how to improve the way we communicate? 
it takes more than words to create a safe, exciting and secure relationship. Too often the signals we send are not those we intend to send. When this happens, both connection and trust are lost in our relationships. When we communicate, we can say a lot without speaking. Our body our posture, tone of voice and the expression on our face all display a message. If our feelings don??™t fit with our words, it is often the body language that gets heard and believed. Nonverbal communication is a rapidly flowing interactive process.
There are also many other ways of communication which am not going to go into detail about but here are a few examples; emails, text messages, letter writing, sign language and also brail.

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Hrm 240

Davina Ross
Selection Tools
August 5, 2011
Cheryl DePonte

Making a good selection is paramount in the hiring process. I??™s the difference between a good hard working employee and an employee who may not uphold the ideas of the company. A good selection process can reduce the number of applications one may have to choose from. This process is usually done by a human resource department in most companies. The three selection tools that would be considered for a hiring program at a supermarket would be employment history, interviewing process and background check. A supermarket employee must be considerate and helpful to the many people they serve.
Employment history can usually be determined through the application process. It shows the person responsible for hiring, the types of jobs the applicant has held in the past, the length of employment, the reasons why they are no longer employed, and how often the applicant has moved from one job to another. Since there??™s usually a high turnover in this industry, most hiring managers would like to reduce the number of employees that leave and may be able to monitor this through the employment history process. It gives one an insight as to the type of job duties the applicant has been responsible for in the past, if they are qualified, and may be able to aid in determining what position within the supermarket they would be best fitted for.
The interviewing process another very important step in the hiring process; it allows the interviewer to become acquainted with the applicant. They can see how the applicant carries themselves, if they are confident, personable, or if they would be a good representation of the company. Does the applicant speaks clearly and is easy to understand. It is the best opportunity to find out first-hand about their job experience and why they think they should be a part of your business. Bohlander & Snell (2007) states the interview remains a mainstay of selection because it is especially practical when there are only a small number of applicants; it serves other purposes, such as public relations.
The last selection tool that I choose was background check. Due to the fact that working in a supermarket, some employees handle cash, it is important to know that none of the employees hired have a criminal past. This is also true with knowing employees do not have a violent past, since they must work with the public, they must be patient and understanding to the customers??™ needs and wants. No business owner would want a person that has a criminal record such as theft, which could result in a loss for the supermarket for unaccounted for items being taken.
These tools are necessary for working in a supermarket, they are the best choices is choosing the right candidate for any open position. Knowing what the applicants past job experience is will help you to know if they are capable of taking direction and working in this type of environment. The interviewing process allows you to see how they carry themselves and the hiring manager may judge their character based on the type of questions that were asked and the applicants??™ answers. Lastly with the background check, the interviewer will be able to determine if the applicant can be trusted. These are the advantages of the selection tools that were chosen.
The position that has been chosen for the final project is an Administrator. An Administrator is the back bone and the most functioning individual in any organization; they are responsible for keeping the organization running smoothly from behind the scenes. An Administrators primary job function is to provide administrative support for the person or department they are responsible for, managing certain projects within the business, filing and retrieving information or documents, multi-tasking, and looking after clients. Therefore, all three of the selection tools that are listed above are an important part of the hiring process with the job that has been chosen for the final project. However, Administrator requirements are much different than the job requirements of a supermarket employee; the hiring process should be more detailed.
Employment verification within the application process will show all the necessary past job history to determine if the candidate has the ample experience or previous knowledge of the job which they are applying for. Some experience in customer service would be helpful as well as working within a team environment.
A background check will show if a candidate has any arrests or a criminal background. This step is important because no repeatable business would want to hire someone that has a violent past. An Administrator must be patient due to the fact they will be dealing with different personalities within the business, which will also include clients. They must always be the best representation of the company they work for.
Another tool that may be helpful to use is an assessment test, personality test, and drug test. Using this method will limit the amount of time spent on unqualified candidates as well as giving the company the opportunity to test ones skills or personality to see if they are suited for the job in other areas. Since the position requires an employee to be in the public eye, they must always be consistent in their level of service to the company. Hiring the right candidate for this position should be a fairly easy process and the selection tools mentioned should lock down the best possible candidates available for this position.
The starting point in recruiting for this position would be to determine if the position will be offered to in house employees, giving them the opportunity to move up within the company or would it best for the company to bring in an outside employee. The benefit of hiring from within would cut down on the amount of time spent training the new employee as the in house employee will be more familiar with the interworking of the business. If in house, the position should be posted internally via the company website or posting on a bulletin board within the company. The prospective candidate would be interviewed and required to write a brief synopsis of why they should be considered for the position, their current manager would be required to state why they feel the employee should be considered. If they have a proven track record within their current position, then employee would be considered for a promotion, depending on the position they currently hold within the company.
For all outside candidate, the position would be posted on the company website, a job search engine such as Monster or Career Builder, and temporary job services. The application, including posting of their resume would be available for them. If they go directly through the company website, they would be requested to complete the assessment or personality test after they submit the application. Again, this would decrease the amount of time spent on unqualified applicants. As not to hold up the interviewing process of qualified candidates, scores from the assessment test should be available within 24 hours. The candidate that best fits what the company is looking for would be offered the position, if they accept the details as to date of hire, salary and benefits would be covered.
There are several methods of the interviewing process. The Structured interview usually has a set of questions that asked to each candidate, it keeps the flow of the interview in order and the interviewer maintains complete control at all times. The non-directive interview lets the candidate speak freely and go in any direction they choose. The broad open-minded process leaves the interview open for other information to come out that otherwise may not have. The method I would choose for the interviewing process would be the structured interview, although, it would be good to incorporate the broad open-minded questions to learn as much as possible about the candidate. Below is a list of possible interview questions that may be used for this position.
?° What job responsibilities have you done in the past that makes you the best person for this position
?° Have you ever had an irate customer What did you do What was the outcome
?° Have you ever had a bad situation occur with a fellow employee What was the outcome
?° What are your strengths
?° What are your weaknesses
?° Do you prefer working alone or in a team environment
?° What are you looking for in regard to working for this company
?° Are you looking for long term employment What does job stability mean to you
?° What do you know about the position you are applying for
?° What do you know about this company
?° Do you require constant supervision

If the prospective candidate possesses the proper qualifications, background, work history or work ethics. And possess the skills that are required, then you would have the best candidate for the job. Finding the right person to fit the position may take more than may be expected, but it is necessary to assure that the right person will be hired. They must be a good fit with the company with other employees and clients in mind. Does this person fit what would be the best representation of the company; can they conduct themselves in a professional manner at all times
The final decision is normally left up to the Human Resource department, and an offer would be placed to the prospective employee, and if accepted all the particulars will be worked out at that time. With all the steps put into the complete process of hiring, it is hoped that the best person would be hired to carry out the necessary duties the job requires.


Managing Human Resources, Bohlander, S Snell 2004 South Western, retrieved August 5, 2011., retrieved August 5, 2011.

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Level 3 in Counselling skills and Theory
Unit 4
journey of self discovery
1.1 Most of us believe that self- development only happens when we are learning something new, and we forget that self-development is an ongoing process. A counsellor??™s own development must be a continual process of, growth and expansion. They must demonstrate an interest in self-awareness, self-counselling, work/life balance, focus, goal setting and other complementary areas of self-development. Through their own growth a counsellor will also pick up additional understanding and knowledge, which equips them with effective tools to use to help and support a client during the counselling process.

As an ethical practitioner and member of a professional association, a counsellor needs to continue developing her/his skills and knowledge. Most counsellors do this by attending short courses, seminars or workshops. Through supervised counselling sessions and consultations with other professionals, the counsellor will all so be able to explore their own self awareness and personal development. It will give them the opportunity to be continually open to personal, and career development which will help the counsellor fully t understand their values and self.

1.2 Many of our values, beliefs and behaviours are established during childhood. My own values and beliefs were originally developed through my parents, family and outside influences such as society and cultures. I believe that as a counsellor I may at some point be exposed to issues with my client, such as their lifestyle or behaviour etc that could bring into question my own beliefs and values. For example if my client has committed an act that was morally wrong, this may really challenge my values as honesty and integrity are values that are really important to me.

As a counsellor I will endeavour to accept the client for who they are, without prejudgments, and will aim to set agreed client boundaries that will not influence my issues I may have regarding the situation, by compromising the client counsellor relationship. I will encourage the client to to talk openly without prejudice. I would like to think as a counsellor I could put my values to one side, and help my client to attain personal growth and self ??“actualization.

1.3 Verbal and non-verbal feedback is a vital part for self-development as it provides you with honest information about your behaviour and performance; it can highlight both positive and negative areas. It??™s about improving your own growth and at the same time helping you to maintain good levels of work performance. Having feedback helps me to personally develop and appreciate my strengths and weaknesses; this allows me to grow as a person.

During my skills practice work as a student counsellor I have received useful, constructive feedback for example:
* Delivered a clear contract
* Used a warm and friendly approach within the session
* Good use of soler skills ??“ maintaining eye contact, open posture helping the client to relax.
* Attending skills- using non- verbal communication by smiling and nodding to encourage the client to talk
* Good summary ??“ showing an understanding of the issues discussed
* Reflection skills ??“used opening question to help prompted and encourage the client
I have also received feedback on areas for improvement for example:
* To slow down my pace when counselling the client
* To make sure I have less talking input during the session, as I didn??™t allow the client enough talk time.
I found all the feedback to be helpful, it gave me the opportunity to look at all the areas and make improvements where required. This will help to reinforce the successful use of my skills work, and make my counselling session even more effective.
1.4 With reference to the Johari Window, I found it to be a very useful tool when gaining self-awareness; it??™s allowed me more of an understanding of the interaction between myself and others. I have always be aware that this area (knowing all), is quite often like an open book, as I find I??™m ok with disclosing some personal information about myself, and my family are always telling me I??™m too open with others. Self- awareness and development of myself, is something I have always taken seriously especially in developing my communication skills and relationships with others, through work, courses, and workshops this enabled the ability to be more openly and effective Hopefully receiving feedback over the years and talking it onboard through all of these experiences has encouraged my blind spot to continually develop.

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Hrm 240 Script for Orienting New Employees

Final Project: Script for Orienting New Employees
March 24, 2012Novonda Lilly
Axia College of University of Phoenix

We are excited to have you as part of our team. You were hired because we believe you can contribute to the success of our business and share our commitment to achieving the goals of our mission statement (“Employee Handbook: Introduction”, 2012) — Dedicated to Growing and Protecting the Assets of Our Clients.
Our organization is committed to unparalleled service in all aspects of our business. As part of the team, we hope you will discover that the pursuit of excellence is a rewarding aspect of your career here (“Employee Handbook: Introduction”, 2012.) You are an integral part of the success of this organization. We are counting on you to do your job and do it well!
It is our hope that, through a better understanding of our organization and its programs, you will be able to align your personal goals with those of our team. In doing so, we can all succeed together. This creates a win-win situation.
The employee handbook is your personal reference to the policies and practices of our firm. In designing our handbook, we have attempted to balance our goals with the importance of meeting your basic needs of good working conditions and a sense of accomplishment in your work.
We, in HR, feel that it is important to address some sensitive issues during your early employment with our company. We have put in-force workplace policies and standards of conducts referenced in your employee handbook. Unlawful harassment and sexual harassment will not be tolerated within our organization. We promote a productive and safe working environment and have a zero tolerance regarding verbal or physical conduct by an employee, client, vendor, or others that harass or disrupt performance within our organization. Please reference our employee handbook for the definition of unlawful and sexual harassment and policies. Our organization also prohibits retaliation against any individual who reports discrimination, harassment, or participates in this behavior of any sort.
Privacy is another sensitive issue within our workplace. Our organization guarantees fair treatment regarding employee??™s right to privacy. No employee should have any expectation of privacy as to his/her e-mail activity, Internet activity, voice mail, local computer files, files on network drives, data stored in Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), Black Berries or cell phones, or any other electronic communication systems that are the property of our organization or linked to our network in any form. The privilege of accessing the Internet from our organization is given for conducting business. However, surfing for personal use can be conducted but only during breaks and non-business hours. Supervisors are responsible for instructing employees on the proper use of the communication services used by the firm for both internal and external business communications to include Internet usage.
Employees are to refrain from excessive personal call during the workday. We realize that sometimes personal calls cannot be avoided. Please use discretion when using company phones and personal cell phones for personal use. Cell phones should not be used during meetings, unless the call relates to the meeting. Employees are expected to put their cell phones on vibrate during the day and during meetings. Additionally, because phone conversations can be disruptive to fellow coworkers, employees are requested to refrain from walking through the halls while talking on cell phones. Cellular devices that interfere with the company??™s electronics are prohibited.


Bohlander, G. W., & Snell, S. A., (2007). Managing human resources (14th ed.). Florence, KY: Thomson Learning Higher Education.
Employee Handbook: Introduction. (2012). Retrieved from
HR360. (2011 – 2012). Employee Handbook Guide. Retrieved from
Smith, W. P., & Tabak, F. (2009). Monitoring Employee E-mails: Is There Any Room for Privacy Academy Of Management Perspectives, 23(4), 33-48. doi:10.5465/AMP.2009.45590139

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the counsellor and client as counsellors are required to have regul
In this assignment I will be explaining how
I shall be looking at Psychodynamic counselling which has its roots in the theories of Sigmund Freud. His studies focused on the belief that our emotions, thoughts and behaviour stem from the unacceptable thoughts from childhood which we allow to influence our current thinking. Consciously and unconsciously these repressed thoughts and feelings eventually can influence our lives manifesting as depression, fears and conflicts. He also identified three driving forces of the mind. The Id, this contains the instinctual drives and impulses that motivate our behaviour. The Ego, the rational, partly conscious part of the mind. The Super-ego the conscientious side of our mind, parental rules and taboos.
Also Person Centred counselling developed by Carl Rogers this deals with the ???here and now??? principle. It focuses on the personal relationship between a counsellor and his client, encouraging clients to explore and create positive change for themselves. You could say that the core theory is the tree trunk and the branches the different types of counselling branching off.
Both approaches to counselling use the core conditions, these are, UPR unconditional positive regard, Empathic understanding, Congruence. Together these three core conditions are believed to enable the client to develop and grow in their own way.
the core method of counselling can be applied to, helping someone who has experienced bereavement and are having problems moving through the stages of grief.
Using the guide lines of the BACP a counsellor strives to give a client a good standard of practice and care. These are a clear set of guidelines for the counsellor to follow and set a standard for all counsellors to work from. It protects ar monitoring. The BACP ethics for counselling include; Values, Principles and Personal moral qualities.

As the client has experienced bereavement I believe that using the Person Centred approach would be the best approach. This deals with the here and now and allows the client to explore their thoughts, emotions and feelings. Although grief is expressed in individual ways usually the client has intense feelings of helplessness.
???Counselling gets particularly necessary when the person experiencing the grief is so completely over whelmed and debilitated by their grief that their natural coping capabilities are lost. ??? (O??™Farrell 2001)
Often a client will need to talk and talk. They may feel unable to burden their family with anymore of their grief. Obviously the family is going through an equally emotional time so the client could feel guilty about upsetting them further. Sometimes having to hide their intense pain in the hope of saving those around them this burden. Thus the need for a counsellor. Creating a safe confidential non-judgemental, non-directive approach .As a basis for genuine understanding a counsellor engages in active listening. The client may feel that with a counsellor they have been given ???permission to talk??™ (A. Milne 2007). When everyone else expects them to be brave, getting over it. The main thing is just being there with the client, acknowledging and supporting them through their expressions of grief, listening, using reflecting skills and gently encouraging them to get in touch with and explore their feelings to help with actualizing the loss they have suffered. Using the core conditions Person Centred counselling skills are particularly important especially empathic responding. Clients are vulnerable when they hold on to deeply painful emotions, which is often what they do in their grief. The counsellor??™s ability to convey acceptance and to hold and contain the clients grief is all important. Trying to comprehend, as best as possible, the accurate meaning of what the client is experiencing in the very moment and communicating this to him. Attempting to put oneself in the client??™s internal frame of reference and to feel at one with him. Understanding his pain as he does. Building up a trust with the client, being real, congruent that you are present.
The process of grief is an individual journey, active listening provides the best guidelines as to where a client is in the grieving process. Dr. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross pioneered methods in support and counselling of personal trauma, grief and grieving, associated with death and dying. Her ideas, notably the five stages of grief model (denial, anger, bargaining, depression acceptance) helps to understand and deal with and counsel personal reaction to trauma. It is only a guide and people do not always experience all five ???grief cycle??™ stages. Some stages could be revisited, (E. Kubler-Ross 1969).
The first stage denial is a conscious or unconscious refusal to accept facts it is a defence mechanism and perfectly natural. This could also be linked to Freud??™s ???id, ego and super??“ego??™. The id, seeking to avoid pain or unpleasure. (S. Freud 1923).

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Hrm 240 Checkpoint Performance Appraisal

HRM/240 CheckPoint: Performance Appraisal

Here are the two aspects of performance appraisals that I chose are; Strategic relevance and compliance with the law. One of the special challenges for strategic relevance are; If the employee does not understand the companies goals then this can put the employee at a high risk for failing their appraisal. It is very important for an employee and the employer to make sure that when the employee is hired, the employer goes over all the goals and expectations that they are required from the employee. If an employer does not explain what they expect from the employee, then it is not fair to give the employee a bad appraisal, due to the employer did not clarify their expectations in the beginning. One way to be fair to the employee and to be able to give the employee a fair and just appraisal, the employer needs to make sure that they give clear and precise instructions to the employee.
One of the special challenges for compliance with the law is; to make sure that the appraisals are job related. Also, there could be a conflict in ones appraisal if you have more than one supervisor appraising an employee. Both of the supervisors need to make sure that the person doing the appraisal is the one who has witnessed some of the employees behaviors. They need to also compare notes with each other as well. It cannot be fair to write up an appraisal based on another persons words or hear say. The documents of an appraisal is very important due to if the appraisal is wrong or has wrong allegations against them in the appraisal, then the employee can take some legal actions on the appraisal. With having this appraisal documented can also help the employer have the proof that they need of the employee wrong doings.

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Counselling Theories Essay

What theories do I draw upon and which do I reject to make sense of client, counsellor and therapeutic relationship process

On reading the title of this essay, I was initially concerned that at the moment I have only purely concentrated on and been trained in, the Person Centred theories to counselling; therefore in having the task of writing this essay it has encouraged me to delve deeper and looked further into other methods of counselling to understand some of the theories behind their particular approaches, as well as focus on the person centred theories and for me to compare and contrast these.
The only form of counselling I have received was from a person centred counsellor, as part of my Certificate in Counselling qualification, In the future, I think it would be of great benefit for me, to experience another method of counselling, as this would give me a greater understanding of how theories are put into practice only then I will be able to fully decide whether or not to concentrate on the Person Centred theories or incorporate further training and then draw upon theories of other models of counselling in order to work better with a wide range of clients. In fact Mackay et al. (2001) explain that working as a counsellor or therapist will tend to involve further training in order to develop and enhance theirs skills set.
I believe that a little like passing a driving licence, I think I will really expand my knowledge of other theories, of which there are literally hundreds, when I hopefully gain employment or volunteer as a counsellor, and in doing so I will increase my experience. I will draw further on other methods as I believe one approach and set of theories cannot be suitable to all clients, In fact Wampold (2001) suggests that no single therapeutic approach has a superior grasp of the truth.
I have every confidence in the theories of Person Centred counselling being the underlying foundation of my counselling, and that the model seems to fit with my ethics and beliefs, and I am encouraged by the popularity of this model, as Jourdan and Kirschenbaum (2005) write about the prevalence of Rogerss work, and how it can be measured in the number of professional organisations, institutes, and journals dedicated to the person-centred approach.
Currently at my stage of training I am focussing on person centred theories, but was interested to read that Henry (1993) wrote that he found therapists who adhered to a manualised model adversely affected the therapeutic relationship.
I have a placement at a clinic within the national Health Service, here there are some Cognitive Behavioural Therapists (CBT) and also one therapist who uses the psychodynamic model, working within this environment has enabled me to hear first hand about other methods and theories. There is a community mental health nurse, who has been trained in Person Centred Counselling, who explained that the practitioners of other methods of counselling find the Person Centred approach ???too fluffy???, the other counsellors explained that within the NHS, as it is time limited, the NHS prefer to be more goals orientated therefore the CBT model seems to be favoured at this current time.
I disagree with the views held by, non person centred counsellors,that the person centred approach being ???too fluffy??™, I like to think that offering the core conditions, as Rogers believed, that every person has their own self healing process, and that if the right conditions are provided the process can take place. He argued that empathy, congruence and unconditional positive regard are the core conditions necessary for therapeutic change.

Certain theories from the cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) approach seem to be of great benefit to the therapeutic relationship when working with time limited helping work. The CBT model is currently popular in health care settings; from my experience the health care workers within my placement have been trained as CBT therapists, as this is goals orientated, and they believe that client growth can be achieved quicker, by setting such goals. This is not a theory I will readily draw on, as I find the format of setting goals may be too directive. Although it reminds me of a client I have had within my placement, where I feel part of the success of our sessions were down to the fact that the client was very self aware, and as part of her own awareness, towards the end of each session she would explain that, she would like to set herself a target for the following week, for example she would say that she would work on reducing the times she consecutively washed her hands, Then at the start of each new session, the client would begin by explaining how she experienced the goals that she had set herself and what she found difficult, I asked no further questions, but was with the client in a person centred basis, focussing on her feelings rather than the practicalities of her goals.
The basis of the relationship within the CBT model is that neither the counsellor nor clients are the expert, but of one that will encourage a collaborative approach between the client and counsellor in setting goals and homework. It is written by (Mcleod, 2007, P54) ???the sequence of actions carried out by a person, in collaboration with a counsellor, in order to be able to get on with their lives???. CBT is based on, not only what goes on in the counselling room, but actively encourages the client to complete homework, Persons(1988) and Niemeyer and Feixas (1990) both suggest that patients who do homework regularly show a greater improvement than do patients that do not, and they go on to write that revision of the homework may be a brief task at the start of the next session, equally however this may occupy most of the session, especially when the issue the patient wants to discuss are contained within the homework assignment.
Although I believe in the theory that setting a task, goal or home work to be completed outside of the sessions can be a great benefit to the therapeutic relationship due to the cognitive approach to this method of therapy, I am inclined to thing that this seems quite clinical to me, I also believe this does not give the client complete autonomy during the sessions, as they will be being guided with direct questions.
So therefore I am inclined to reject the theory that allowing the subject of homework to dominate a session on the basis that I personally would not have found it a benefit in my personal therapy sessions, I feel that our client counsellor relationship would have been compromised, If I had felt my counsellor had not given me the choice of what I wanted to discuss. In contrast to this Myran and Josefowitz (2006) argue that with ways in which interventions by a therapist, developed by cognitive behavior therapy model are different to interventions of those traditionally used by person-centred therapists (which are typically a great deal more tentative, and in no way directive), they can be practiced as a highly empathic, person-centred form of therapy.
If done in a person centred way, I could see myself drawing upon this theory of integrating a CBT intervention in a person centred way, as I believe counselling can be tailored to each individual clients needs.

One of the key theories of the CBT model that I am not drawn to is that the relationship is not an important aspect in helping the client, in the classic model of CBT, in facilitating change in the clients thinking of what is causing their current emotional problem. I believe that the relationship is one of the most important factors in
Rogers??™ (1951) theory of therapeutic counselling is based on the belief that for a successful relationship the counsellor must show congruence, unconditional positive regard, as well as empathy; this will create a relationship that needs to be experienced by the client.
Rogers states the core conditions are vital in the therapeutic relationship, I agree that these are vital too, Mearns and Thorne (2007, p95) write the following of one of the conditions, ???Unconditional positive regard is the label given to the fundamental attitude of the person centred counsellor towards her client, I feel this is the core condition that I may have difficulty with, if someone reveals that they have abused a child in the past.
Rogers believed that the client has it within themselves to resolve their own problems with very little intervention from the counsellor. He believed the client knew their own experiences and background and the things that have affected and influenced them in their own lives. Carl Rogers (1980, p115) states “Individuals have within themselves vast resources for self-understanding and for altering their self-concepts, basic attitudes, and self-directed behaviour; these resources can be tapped if a definable climate of facilitative psychological attitudes can be provided”
One of the theories I feel is very close to me in the counselling relationship is of how important the non verbal aspect of communication is, this is highlighted by Mearns (2003, p68) when he makes the point that even in person centred counselling a large part of the relationship between counsellor and client is unspoken, and laying down unspoken assumptions about each other and developing implicit norms in the relationship are normal ways of creating predictability and safety in the relationship. However, that unspoken relationship contains material which is of great potential therapeutic importance. Being aware of this will encourage me to hopefully be in tune with clients to the best of my ability, I may get this wrong, but this may be of benefit to the relationship if I feel my client is uncomfortable either physically or mentally, I may be able to meet the client and address their difficulty, again I feel this will highlight that the relationship is one of equals.

Regarding non verbal communication, for example body language and showing unconditional positive regard as well as listening, I think that although these are skills I feel that part of this is natural as no amount of the above will be able to convince someone that you are genuine if you are not, as some people have the ability to detect when someone is trying to fake empathy or not being genuine, if someone feels that the listener is not genuine, has no empathy or they don??™t feel the listener is attending to what they are talking about then the relationship is not going to be a very successful one, especially in a counselling environment where many people attending a session for the first time will be naturally cautious, and they really need to be encouraged to talk about whatever they choose with the counsellor showing them genuine warmth.
Carl Rogers believed that the client is the expert in the therapeutic relationship. This contrasts to other methods of counselling where the counsellor is the expert. This is a large difference between Carl Rogers??™ methods and other types of counselling. Rogers saw the therapist and client as equal partners rather than as an expert treating a patient. In recognition that the client is the expert Rogers??™ referred to those in therapy as clients, not patients. I particularly am drawn to this theory as I believe that if the relationship is more of equals rather than the counsellor being the expert.
Although I can see the benefit in the theory of psychodynamic counselling where the therapist is seen as the expert, equipped with expert knowledge I am more likely to draw on the role of a collaborative equal as with the CBT model or where the client is the expert as with the person centred model.

I feel sometimes, in the person centred approach, a valid tentative question may be of benefit to the session as It is written by Pete Sanders (1996, p71), when he mentions the work of Gerard Egan stating that ???Along with others, Egan thinks that the core conditions may be necessary, but are not sufficient-they need extra elements added to them before helping can be properly effective???

One of the integrative approaches that I think I will find useful in practice, was created by Gerard Egan (1994) which is described as his theory of a three-stage helping model, it is thought that this will encourage a client to strive to find the resolution to their problems in a self-empowering way. This is particularly useful for facilitating addictive behaviours, Prochaska, DiClementi and Norcross (1992) explain how professionally facilitated change of addictive behaviours using the key stages can help this process of change for the client
His theory involved the following stages:
Stage 1 – The first stage of Egan??™s model is one of finding the resolution to the problem, by allowing the client to discuss their particular issues, and then move on to the evaluation.
Stage 2 ??“ this stage offers different perspectives but could also be tentatively highlighting any blind spots that the client might not have seen, possibly due to their level of distress.
Stage 3 ??“ this stage involves helping the client to develop using helping strategies such as using brain storming and an element of creative thinking.
Although Egan??™s three stage model may be a theory I draw upon in the future I believe that unless the highlighting the blind spots is done in a very tentative manner it could be something that will have a negative impact on the client/counsellor therapeutic relationship as the client would not have autonomy as they would be being directed.
This approach may seem far removed from Carl Rogers ideas of the client self-healing but I believe certain clients may find themselves in a particular level of distress where tentatively encouraging the client to have a more objective perspective may be of great therapeutic benefit to the client and relationship.
Although I would like to believe that the person centred approach will be suitable for every client talking to fellow counsellors within my placement who practice other counselling methods I am led to understand that one form of counselling can never be enough. An alternative to a singular model is eclecticism ???the use of diverse techniques without regard to their origins within a particular theoretical orientation??? (Hollanders 1999, P483).
On this basis, I believe in the importance of learning other forms of counselling, in order to have the ability to work with a wide range of clients.

Cooper and Mcleod write that different clients may need different things at different times and by using an eclectic approach there is more potential to meet individual client??™s needs, but such models raise the problem that the practitioner needs to draw upon some kind of principles to decide which techniques to utilise in a given situation.

Gestalt wrote about the theory of the ???empty chair??™ which is where a counsellor would say to a client who is exhibiting particular anger towards somebody, the counsellor would point gestures towards an empty chair and ask the client what they would like to say to the person if they were sitting here now. In a study by Paivio and Greenberg (1995), they discovered that using the theory of ???The empty chair??? it was found that with clients who they deemed to have unfinished business, who came to counselling, results indicated that experiential therapy achieved clinically meaningful gains for most clients and significantly greater improvement than without offering this theory.
Reading about this model reminded me of a client who was talking about her father who had passed away. She was particularly angry about something in his will, she then pointed forcefully at an empty chair in the room and said if he was sat there now and disclosed what she would say to him. Because the client was allowed to focus on the empty chair and imagined her father sitting there it encouraged her to talk about her feelings more openly, I feel that the client, offered this information of her own free will, and chose to use the object of the chair as her point of focus, I believe it had more impact in the session than if she had just said ???I would have liked to tell my father??¦??? when the client gestured towards the chair, it seemed to me like a real point of anger, allowing the clients true feeling to come to the surface, I obviously cannot compare the clients reaction if the chair had not been there, but this is a theory I may consider drawing upon as a way to encourage a client to talk about what they would like to say to someone, who they have a conflict with. I believe this may give the clients a focus to allow their emotions to emerge, as with my example I do not think the client would have been so forceful with what she said she would have liked to say to her father, if just she was just asked the question.
I believe using this method is a type of transference where typically where a client would relate to the counsellor in the same way they would relate to someone who they know, (Jacobs, 1998). In this theory the transference would be directed to the chair. Maybe it is down to my current lack of experience, but I am not fully drawing on the theories of classic transference at the moment, this I feel is something I must look further into, in order to maximise the effectiveness of any potential counselling relationships.

One aspect of counselling that I feel is very important is the environment in which the counselling is conducted. Obviously counselling in a room where there is no external noise is important but also being in an environment that is neutral and not distracting to the client. Mcloughlin (1995) comments that the physical environment in which psychodynamic counselling takes place should not be taken for granted or ignored. She goes on to say sensitive management of constancy of the counselling room and attention to the client??™s relationship to it provide valuable references to the therapeutic dialogue. In my experience on my placement I try to see clients in the same room to provide this constancy, however unfortunately this is not always possible. On the occasions when we are in a different room I wonder how the client is feeling being in new surroundings as sometimes they make reference to the room being different to the previous week. Even subtle differences to where the clock is positioned could have an adverse effect on the therapeutic relationship. During my own cc imagine that if I was more apprehensive about my sessions I might have felt uncomfortable not knowing my surroundings.
Within psychodynamic counselling Mcloughlin (1995) explains that the essence of psychodynamic counselling the counsellor should make herself available for the clients use in ways that become accessible for interpretation. Within this model of counselling there is the theory that the idea of a blank screen is a particular tradition. I am particularly drawn to this theory which reminds me of my counselling sessions where the counsellor had a neutral coloured curtain drawn across her large bookcase which helped avoid distractions and enabled the therapeutic relationship to develop. With that in mind I try and pick the most neutral environment for counselling.

I have a friend who has been a nurse for over twenty years, I was very interested in hearing him say that, he feels that if he could prescribe a walk or exercise in a park or an outdoor activity to some of his patients, he feels they would greatly benefit, Due to the fact that I am an outdoors person, I can really relate to his theory, and with this in mind, whenever I am feeling stressed, anxious or depressed I tend to head outdoors. I feel that even a short amount of time spent walking by a river, in woods or even in my garden will have a great therapeutic benefit for me, enabling me to either focus on problems or clear my head or generally give me a greater sense of wellbeing.
Whilst I appreciate this will not work for everybody, I believe that having connectivity with nature will assist some people. There are many theories to incorporate nature within a therapeutic setting, for example, Burns (1998) has written about integrating nature experiences into hypnotherapy and Linden and Grut (2002) have used allotment gardening as key elements in their psychotherapeutic work with torture victims.
On this basis I attended an eco-therapy workshop at the recent conference at Keele University held by Dr John Hegarty who spoke of his own personal theories of how incorporating nature and counselling together can be of greater benefit than sitting in a room. Drawing on the model of eco-therapy I recognise that for certain clients this could have real benefits; however I also recognise that for others it may have a negative impact on their progress.
During the eco-therapy workshop Dr Hegarty spoke of an aspect of how to bring nature into counselling may be by a woodland walk with a client the possible drawbacks of this would be the inability of reading the client??™s body language as easily as if the therapy was undertaken in a traditional counselling environment.
Another aspect of eco-therapy he spoke about was using aspects of nature to encourage clients to talk, for example offering the client a variety of objects (e.g. bark, nests, dried flower) and ask them to pick an item, and then explain why they were drawn to that particular item, this may be a great encouragement for a client to talk, as I feel this use of objects and imagery will take the focus directly off the client, but equally encourage them to talk openly, this, I feel will be most productive when working with quieter or shy clients.
In the future I aspire to bring nature into the therapeutic sessions. Where appropriate, I would use this on a collaborative basis with a client who felt that they too have a strong connectivity with nature. This may entail bringing nature into the room, either via plants or pictures, a room with a view or counselling in an outdoor setting, either seated in a garden or whilst walking.

In conclusion before I started my training as a counsellor, although I wanted to be in the position to help people, I had the perception that to be a counsellor I would need the knowledge to question, guide and advise a client. However after initially looking into training and several models, despite the fact that there are many hundreds of theories and models, I felt the person centred approach and the theory that offering Rogers (1957) core conditions was at the heart of the therapeutic relationship in order to encourage growth and change within the client, I felt that this was the model that spoke to me most.
On writing this essay, I feel I have gained a greater understanding of other theories, I believe that as stated the person centred model fits with me, only as my experience grows will I be able to fully experiment with theories that I will reject, or further draw upon, I think that due to the fact that I spent many years working in the field of business and I.T I need to work through some theories rather than accepting or rejecting them on the basis of only reading about them. I can imaging that in a few years time it will be interesting for me to read this essay to understand how I have developed and how a few years of practical experience may endorse or dismiss the theories I hold close at the moment, Maslowski and Morgan (1971,p7) state ???a counsellor in the world of today must, first and foremost must be in touch with who and what he is??? At this stage I believe experience will fine tune this for me.
Cooper and McLeod (2010) comment that, counsellors and psychotherapists are aware that we are moving towards a therapeutic ???monoculture??™ in which cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) seems to be dominant, I feel that at this early stage of my counselling career I believe my underlying philosophy will be that of the theories within the person centred approach for example by the offering the core conditions of Unconditional positive regard, Empathy and Congruence, and along side the theory that the relationship is an important factor. By having this as my core I hope to be able to actively help my clients by offering the core conditions, but I hope that I will compliment this as my experience grows and my knowledge is enhanced with further training and exposure to different practices.
As every client is unique I hope that by pursuing further training and experience, I will be able to offer an integrative approach I hope I will be to offer a fit dependent on the individual client??™s needs, for example a client who has experience bereavement will have different needs to that of a client who, for example, is suffering from Obsessive??“compulsive disorder, Ultimately I strongly feel drawn towards the person centred approach drawing on other theories from other methods as I have discussed in this essay.
I understand that an eclectic approach may be not as structured due to the fact that different theories will be employed, But as stated I believe different clients may vary from different methods, with further experience in counselling, I will address each client in a way that I feel that I already do in my everyday life, where when communicating with different people, I match a type of communication that will be mutually a best fit for whoever I am talking to.
Drawing on different theories can present a problem, for example there is a contradiction, where I have written in this essay that I draw upon the psychodynamic theory that consistency of the counselling environment is important in order to create a place of safety and reliability for the client and a blank canvas is so important due to the fact that this will create consistency, but conversely I have then gone on to continue to explain that how I am draw to the theories of eco therapy and the benefits of, with the collaboration and consent of a client, in holding sessions outside of the conventional counselling room, by holding sessions outside, in woods or a garden.
I believe that as Stiles( 1998) explains, that working in a pluralistic approach, opens up the possibilities of working in a more creative way, this will then allow the counsellor to have a genuineness and responsively address an approach that will reflect the needs of an individual clients??™ wants.
As my counselling experience grows, I feel, my underlying philosophy will be based with the person centred approach, but drawing on eco therapy and a tentative cognitive behavioural therapy approach, if necessary but only if I think this is suitable for the client. I do feel I need an underlying base model, as well informed clients may know about counselling theories, and may have chosen me as my theories and values are aligned with theirs.
I have heard this described by someone as like a ship being anchored in water and being mostly person centred focused and drifting to other methods when it seems appropriate to meet the current client??™s needs, I would like to think this analogy will reflect my counselling practice as my experience grows.

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Hrm 210 Affirmative Action

Affirmative Action
Kelly Styles
September 18, 2011
Dr. Bea B. Bourne

Affirmative Action
I would like to recommend a few changes in the company in which affirmative action policies are implemented. Affirmative action is a policy or program that is aimed at countering discrimination against minorities and women, especially in employment and education settings.
Diversity is desirable and wont always occur if left to chance. Students starting at a disadvantage need a boost. Affirmative action draws people to areas of study and work they may never consider otherwise. Some stereotypes may never be broken without affirmative action. Affirmative action is needed to compensate minorities for centuries of slavery or oppression.
A teacher at Kansas State University by the name of Krishna Tummala states that affirmative action is a difficult subject (Potucek, 2003). This is because affirmative action can cause reverse discrimination in the education and work settings where it is used. However, affirmative action within work and education settings has been shown to open new doors for minority groups. These doors have led to areas of college education and areas of work where minority groups have not ventured into in the past.
Within the last 45 or more years, affirmative action has brought a greater sense of equality to the education and work force. Women, African Americans, Hispanics, Latino??™s, and immigrants from all over the globe have flocked to the United States in an effort to find and build a new life with the dream of raising their children in a society where everyone is treated as an equal.
The practice of affirmative action has provided positive qualities to an overall cultural diversity. Also, many people who would not have had opportunities to excel in life were given the changes through the affirmative action legislation. Affirmative action has more positive qualities than negative side effects. Many people who wouldnt have had any real opportunities to succeed and excel in life were given the changes through the affirmative action legislation. University and supervisory populations were once homogenous and almost exclusively white male.
The process of affirmative action ensures that men and women of all nationalities, creed, color, and religious backgrounds are provided the same opportunities for employment, education, and advancement within corporation and education settings. However, there is the question as to whether or not affirmative action can cause reverse discrimination on individuals who are considered to belong to a majority such as individuals from more prominent ethnic backgrounds. In the past, there has been unrest when individuals of minority descent have been afforded opportunities that they may not have been fully qualified for. While affirmative action is meant to provide opportunities for underprivileged minority groups, I believe that a minority individual should be hired due to his or her experience, knowledge which pertains to his or her desired position, and educational background. Not based solely on his or her ethnical background simply because a corporation needs to meet or abide by affirmative action laws.
Today the diversity and empowerment opportunities of our schools and work places help contribute to a richer cultural environment from everyone. There is much to learn about other cultures and affirmative action helps us learn in the best way, through interaction. Through interaction with individuals from different ethnic and religious backgrounds, everyone within a workplace or educational setting can learn and come to accept an individual for who he or she is. Not for any form of stigma or racial profiling that many individuals on their own believe in due to their own upbringing or ethnic and racial background.
I believe that enacting an affirmative action play for our corporation can greatly diversify the amount of men and women within the corporation while ensuring that educated indivduals are able to use his or her education, experiences, and personal moral beliefs to enrich the workplace for the betterment of all who work together. I hope that you, the board of directors, will take into consideration the benefits that affirmative action can bring to our corporation.
Potucek, R. (2003, Fall). Affirmative Action: Pros and Cons. Retrieved from
Bohlander, G. W., & Snell, S. A., (2007). Managing human resources (14th ed.). Florence, KY: Thomson Learning Higher Education.

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Counselling the Patient with Gid

Appreciating and counseling the patient with Gender Identity Disorder is not always an easy task.?  Each counselor must comprehend the in depth ideas to these individuals who need assistance with their mental health needs and their individual diagnostic needs.?  Considering the etiologies, the differential diagnoses, and the treatment strategies available not only to the client but for the therapist as well to help the client in their needs is an understanding that every therapist should learn and know.
With the emergence of numerous psychological concerns in therapy over the years, one may suggest that counseling the transgender individual, or a client diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder, is even more of a challenge than perhaps any other concern in this field of study.?  In order to understand the transgender person and their mental health requests, the therapist should not only concern themselves with the various matters that could arise in the counseling sessions, but they should conduct an in-depth assessment of who the transgendered individual is as a human being and what other possible concerns they might have relating to their identity. ? 
With the evolution of medical science, it is no wonder that the field of psychology is seeing a rise of individuals needing the assistance of professionals in determining if complete gender reassignment surgery is appropriate for them or if a less radical procedure (e.g. only hormone treatment, psychotherapy treatment alone) would be in order if one is called for at all.
With the amount of time given to complete this undertaking, some therapists may perhaps find it complexing to recognize the nature of Gender Identity Disorder, or Transgenderism in main stream thought, in a short period of time.?  With an assortment of issues that can present themselves throughout the path of an individual??™s transition, the inexperienced therapist may find it easier to refer the client to a more qualified therapist in the field and then decide to gain the information needed in assisting such individuals.? 
Gordon Allport once said that ???the goal of psychology is to reduce discord among our philosophies of man and to establish a scale of probable truth??? (1955), and in one of his previous texts he relayed that ???general psychology??¦selects a single attribute or function that can be conveniently isolated for study??? (Allport, 1937).?  It is no surprise therefore, that there is a need to counsel each of these individuals with a more open mind, complete understanding, to beware of our biases, and to be cautious and ? aware of our own manifesting countertransference issues that could surface for even the most culturally sensitive and experienced therapist.?  It is because of the refinement of my personal biases, and the newly understood education that I have acquired from good friends who have been diagnosed with Gender Identity Disorder (GID) over the last two years, that I have had a better understanding of GID and have become an advocate on their behalf for the last 18 months with hopes to have it removed from the DSM-5.?  It is because of these truly wonderful, remarkable, and brave individuals that GID was chosen to be written about in this research.
Hypotheses Regarding Etiology
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  With as many as 3.04 million individuals in the United States living with GID, rather diagnosed or not, it appears that this area needs to be highly addressed in regards of diagnosing people without setting a stigma on them.?  Unfortunately, because of our societal norms, a stigma has been set on any mental disorder that we diagnose a patient with, and in an area such as Tulare County, where as many as 4,200 people, again are or are not diagnosed with GID, stigmas need to be addressed in order for these individuals to receive treatment as to not harm themselves, such as in the instance of Martina, who earlier this year took her life in Visalia because of the lack of assistance she was unable to find.?  And with suicide rates for individuals with GID being more than 50 per cent in some studies (University of New Hampshire, 2008), with these statistical numbers, it is a good thing to understand the etiology of GID in order to be able to treat it appropriately.
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders did not have a diagnosis for transgenderism or transsexuality prior to their release of their DSM-III.?  It was only in this third edition that the American Psychiatric Association used the term transsexualism for the first time, making it a mental disorder in the mental health and medical field (1980).?  This terminology again was changed in the DSM-IV (1994) to GID, or gender identity disorder, in which there were three classifications, Gender Identity Disorder in Children or Gender Identity Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS), 302.6 and Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults, 302.85.? ? ?  Because of this definition, many people believe that transgender people are mentally ill, however some authors believe that having a transgender identity is not in and of itself being ???mentally disordered??? (Israel & Tarver, 1996; Melby, 2009).?  ???Regardless of the stage of life in which individuals with gender identity disorder find themselves, the key root of their cross-identification behavior is the conflict over their biological sex role and their perceived sexual identity??? (Kirk & Belovics, 2008).? 
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  In Pauly??™s article ???Terminology and Classification of Gender Identity Disorders,??? the author states that clinicians have been describing patients with some form of gender discomfort for more than 150 years (1992).?  Since 1830, German clinicians have written about gender dysphoria in various European literature.?  Since 1980, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) has been explaining GID in one form or another in the DSM and since then, numerous individuals as well as many organizations have been pressuring to have the removal of GID from the DSM completely.
There are several current theories about the causes of GID and these appear to include chromosomal abnormality, hormonal imbalance, and impaired early parent-child bonding and child-rearing practices (Causes of Gender Identity Disorders, 2010), although none of these could actually be confirmed in literature.? 
In ???The Theory of Gender Identity Disorders???, Meyer reviewed existing hypotheses stating that there are three of them regarding ???transsexualism??? which is the previous term to Gender Identity Disorder in the DSM-III.?  These three hypotheses include the biological/ imprint hypothesis, the nonconflictual hypothesis, and the conflict/defense hypothesis (1982).
In his first hypothesis, Meyer views the biological/ imprint hypothesis of transsexualism as the ???unfolding of a predisposition or the manifestation of a biological vulnerability.????  He also states that Money and Gaskin believed that transsexualism to be a clinical syndrome, possibly triggered by ???critical period affects.????  Both of these ideas would be supported by the thought that one??™s ideas are established early in life as male and female (Parlee, 1998; Harre, 1991).?  Various people consider that gender identity, or the individual ideas of being a man, woman, both, or neither, is fixed in biology, although what the genetic ???cause??? of gender identity may be, has by no means been established (Stryker, 2008).? 
This is found to occur during Erik Erikson??™s initiative versus guilt stage of development (Berger, 1980/2006) and Jean Piaget??™s preoperational stage.?  It is during this age frame of three to seven years of age, in which individuals dealing with gender identity typically come to the belief that they were born in the wrong body.?  The criteria listed for GID are descriptive of various individuals who experience conflict between their gender as assigned at birth and their gender identity, which is typically developed in early childhood and comprehended to be decisively established by age four, which agrees with both Piaget??™s?  and Erikson??™s stages as mentioned above.?  Nevertheless for some transgender individual, gender identity may remain rather fluid for many years (WPATH Board of Directors, 2008).?  ? 
With the previous notion that there is a chromosomal abnormality, we now take a look at the biological etiology of GID.?  Zhou, Hoffman, Gooren, and Swaab looked at the bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BSTc) to see if this area of the brain would possibly be due the reason for sex differences and its correlation on transsexuality (1997).?  In their study, which was the first of its kind, the authors show a female brain structure in genetically male transsexuals which supports their hypothesis that gender identity develops as a result of an interaction between sex hormones and the developing brain.?  In their main findings however, they found no relationship between the BSTc size and sexual orientation, yet they believe that this decrease is size of BSTc in male-to-female transsexuals is related to the gender identity alteration instead.?  This research should be replicated again using pre-operative and post-operative, pre-hormonal therapy and post-hormonal therapy transsexuals as well as non-transsexual individuals to see if the findings agree.
Biologically, the transsexual debate continues on with such research as ???The Heritability of Gender Identity Disorder in a child and Adolescent Twin Sample??? (Coolidge, Thede and Young, 2002) and Blanchard and Bogaert??™s ???Homosexuality in Men and Number of Older Brothers???.?  Many other thoughts have been explained on this hypothesis, yet at this time none of them were able to be located for this research.
Although the second hypothesis by Meyer, nonconflictual identity, did not seem to hold up any relativity in this research, the third hypothesis of conflict/ defense appeared to have validity.?  This hypothesis which has been supported by numerous other authors, has a probability that transsexualism is the result of an unconscious conflict from the earliest years of life (1982).?  Socarides (1969) regarded transsexuality as an attempt to ward off paranoid psychosis that might develop if one engaged in homosexuality. (This is why as therapists, we need to look at the differential diagnoses to make sure that we are not misdiagnosing a patient.)?  Many others as well agreed that transsexuals choose their identity as to avoid another possible issue that may actually be a concern at hand.?  Some of these concerns will be further addressed under the differential diagnoses in the next section.?  It is for this reason that the Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association (HBIGDA) introduced the Standards of Care (SOC), which has been revised numerous times in order to meet today??™s standards for Gender Identity Disorders.?  It is in the SOC that the World Professional Association for Transgender Health, Inc. (WPATH) explains the areas of focus on GID??™s and states that the universal objective of psychotherapeutic, endocrine, or surgical treatments are designed for individuals with GID to receive a lifelong reassurance with their gendered self in order to get the most out of their overall psychological welfare and self-fulfillment (2001).?  In addition to these etiologies, other possible causes of GID are constantly being researched in this in depth field of study.
Differential Diagnosis
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  In understanding these differential diagnoses, one needs to be aware of the current criteria of the DSM-IV-TR??™s GID diagnosis.?  This includes:
* A. A strong persistent cross-gender identification (not merely a desire for any perceived cultural advantages of being the other sex). In children, the disturbance is manifested by four (or more) of the following:
1. Repeatedly stated desire to be, or insistence that he or she is, the other sex.
2. In boys, preference for cross-dressing or simulating female attire; In girls, insistence on wearing only stereotypical masculine clothing.
3. Strong and persistent preferences for cross-sex roles in make believe play or persistent fantasies of being the other sex.
4. Intense desire to participate in the stereotypical games and pastimes of the other sex.
5. Strong preference for playmates of the other sex.
In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as a stated desire to be the other sex, frequent passing as the other sex, desire to live or be treated as the other sex, or the conviction that he or she has the typical feelings and reactions of the other sex.
* B. Persistent discomfort with his or her sex or sense of inappropriateness in the gender role of that sex.
In children, the disturbance is manifested by any of the following:
In boys, assertion that his penis or testes are disgusting or will disappear or assertion that it would be better not to have a penis, or aversion toward rough-and-tumble play and rejection of male stereotypical toys, games, and activities.
In girls, rejection of urinating in a sitting position, assertion that she has or will grow a penis, or assertion that she does not want to grow breasts or menstruate, or marked aversion toward normative feminine clothing.
In adolescents and adults, the disturbance is manifested by symptoms such as preoccupation with getting rid of primary and secondary sex characteristics (e.g., request for hormones, surgery, or other procedures to physically alter sexual characteristics to simulate the other sex) or belief that he or she was born the wrong sex.
* C. The disturbance is not concurrent with physical intersex condition.
* D. The disturbance causes clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
Code based on current age:
* 302.6 Gender Identity Disorder in Children
* 302.85 Gender Identity Disorder in Adolescents or Adults
Since its inception in 1952, the DSM has had a number of revisions with various disorders removed as well as added to the plethora of disorders throughout the years.?  With the introduction of transsexualism in the DSM-III in 1980, a new idea and criteria was born to diagnose an individual based on characteristics inherent to the opposite gender.?  With criteria under the GID in the DSM-IV-TR including a repeatedly stated desire to be the opposite sex and discomfort of one??™s own sex, it is not surprising why as professionals we need to be aware of these differentials.
The first differential is the simple nonconformity to stereotypical sex-role behaviors.?  With more parents allowing their children to express themselves more openly, and more adolescents and adults finding themselves more open minded in regards to stereotyping, it is no surprise that this was the first differential listed.?  Just because a boy plays with a doll or a girl gets dirty does not mean that these children need to be diagnosed with GID.
Another differential is the possible confusion between GID and transsexual fetishism.?  Typically when a heterosexual or bisexual man dresses the part of a woman, this part is for sexual excitement.?  Typically these individuals have no previous childhood cross-gender behaviors that would indicate the need to diagnose them with GID.?  However, if gender dysphoria is present as explained in the DSM, with a lack of the full GID criteria, the specifier With Gender Dysphoria can be included.
Another Careful consideration when diagnosing would to be careful not to confuse GID with GID NOS (Not Otherwise Specified).?  GID NOS is usually given in situations where the individual is showing signs of intersex conditions along with gender dysphoria. ? There are also transient, stressor related cross-dressing behavior, such as males performing as females for entertainment such as drag queens, or a persistent preoccupation with castration (with the removal of the testicles) (also known as orchidectomy) or penectomy (the surgical removal of the penis) with no desire to acquire the sexual characteristics of the female.?  This last definition, although does not define as such for the woman, (i.e. oopherectomy, the operation of removing one or both ovaries, or vaginectomy, the surgical removal of all or part of the vagina), it is the authors understanding that the terms defining GID NOS criterion number three are implied for females as well.
The final differential diagnosis is one of greater concern to watch for.?  The DSM-IV-TR gives the following criteria for schizophrenia, in which one would need to carefully examine a possible GID patient against these criteria as well in order to rule out any possible erroneous diagnoses.?  These criteria include, but are not limited to, delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior, or negative symptoms (i.e. flattened affect).?  Should these specific symptoms appear, then a diagnosis of schizophrenia would be more apt than a GID diagnosis.?  When comparing these two diagnoses criterion in the DSM, we are able to notice that there is a vast difference that needs to be identified with careful detail as to not misdiagnose the patient.
Treatment Strategies
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?  When considering treatment options for the GID patient, one must consider the many options and the length of time that some of the treatments take when working with a client.?  Like any other field of study, transgender counseling may be more beneficial when done with a Gender Specialist or Senior Gender Specialist, however if the client is unable to find a specialist, it is best to work with a therapist that is willing to look out for their best interests.?  To understand a gender specialist and senior gender specialist over a traditional psychotherapist, in their book Transgender Care, Gianna E. Israel and Donald E. Tarver II, M.D. (1997) explain the work of both of these specialized fields.
???The Gender Specialist may be a professional, paraprofessional, or peer-support care provider.?  The Gender Specialist is an active practitioner in psychotherapy counseling, or education directly oriented toward gender-identity issues.? 
???The Senior Gender Specialist is a care provider who has actively practiced as a Gender Specialist for five years.?  Senior Gender Specialists are deemed appropriate to provide assessment and evaluation letters, as recommended for Genital Reassignment Surgery.???
During the mental health treatment process, there are many possibilities for helping the client in their mental health needs, including, but not limited to: individual counseling by counselors who have an adequate knowledge base for understanding transgender, transsexual and GID issues in counseling (Carroll and Gilroy, 2002; Carroll, Gilroy, and Ryan, 2002; Ellis and Erikson, 2002 Schaefer and Wheeler, 2004), self-help and social support groups, group psychotherapy, having a transgender friendly office and staff (Kirk and Belovics, 2008), properly assess and diagnose GID patients (Koetting, 2004), hormone treatment (Asscheman and Gooren, 1992; Cohen-Kettenis and Gooren, 1992), endocrinology, surgery, and psychiatry (Seil, 2004).?  Also it is important to help the client??™s immediate family members and spouse individually, or conjointly if they so desire, in order for them to be able to understand the gender reassignment process and so that they can discuss any issues that they may have about their loved one as well.?  Besides family therapy (Bockting, Knudson, and Goldberg, 2006), it may also be important to the spouse/ partner to be involved in relationship therapy along side the transgender client, in order for them to be able to focus their effort on issues in their relationship regarding the transition process. ? Additionally, Devor??™s Fourteen Stage Model of Transsexual Identity Formation could help likewise in treating individuals with GID and may assist them in their transition of their identity (2004).
Transgenderism is not always a painless path to follow (Hotchkiss, 1995), and transgender individuals, as well as their loved ones have often been an underserved community that are in need of empathic, comprehensive, and clinically competent care providers who are not there to judge or try to mislead them in any direction.?  With the knowledge that has been presented in this paper and through the research undertaken, any motivated mental health care professional or counselor will be able to come to the same knowledge and level of empathy and compassion that is needed to counsel these clients.?  With a typical time frame of two and one half years from the beginning of the counseling process to the completion of post-operative psychotherapy, it is also important not to set specific time frames and to allow for other issues that may need to be addressed prior to any further treatments.?  It is also imperative to understand that post-operative counseling is just as important as pre-operative counseling.?  With little to no literature found on post-operative counseling, it is important that further studies be undertaken to understand this part of the transition process.? 

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Hrm 204 Final Selection Tools

Selection Tools

October 10, 2010

Employee Selection Tools
A properly designed and well executed employee selection process is important for a company because it makes employees perform better, it decreases employee mischief, and leads to better employee attitude, higher company productivity, and less turnover. For a company to remain competitive nationally and internationally, they need to have an effective recruitment and selection protocol. For a hiring program at a supermarket I would chose the following three tools,
Criminal Background Checks: This tool has become a standard according to Bohlander and Snell (2007), in order to help prevent occurrence such as embezzlement, theft, and workplace violence to name a few possibilities. Bohlander & Snell (2007) also touch on the fact that, “…state courts have ruled that companies can be held liable for negligent hiring if they fail to do adequate background checks,” (p. 254). If someone has committed a crime in the past such as theft and embezzlement, they have the ability to commit that same crime again, or possible other crimes as well. This would be beneficial to a supermarket to curb theft of merchandise and cash drawer theft. A marked advantage to this tool is that if the report shows a recorded crime previously committed the employer can base a decision not to go forward with hiring the affected candidate.

Checking references: This allows the employer to make sure the person that is up for hiring consideration has adequate experience to do the job for which they have applied. Checking for reference also provides information on items such as wages, if the applicant was late or missed work a lot, and if they have been honest on their application. Though this tool is helpful, many states have laws to limit what information can be given to those calling for reference checks on previous employees. In some cases previous employers are sometimes reluctant to give much information about former employees as there have been cases where former employers have been sued for giving a poor recommendation on the applicant being checked. The Advantage of this is that it gives employer a good knowledge of the applicant in cases where previous employers are willing to provide adequate reference. This tool also helps cross reference information in the application that was filled out.

Checking references, aptitude test and a criminal background checks. From the three tools mentioned the best choice would be a combination of all the tools, checking references, aptitude test and criminal back ground checks which will include drug testing. The reason I have made this choice is because through checking references you can determine reliability and have some insight on personal and professional ethics. The aptitude test will help with identifying a person ability to learn new processes and adaptability to new situations. Finally a criminal background check is important to help weed out any potential problems with theft, customer relations and drug related issues. There could be a problem with this approach because of the reliability of references. Candidate may have people lie or embellish the truth to have them look good.
Aptitude Testing: The most costly Aptitude Testing is on-the-job aptitude testing – that is, learning the level of a new employees actual knowledge and ability after theyve already been hired. Unfortunately for most employers, the results too often reveal that their candidate of choice didnt have the Aptitude and Skills they claimed on their resume and in the interview.
The Advantage of Aptitude Testing is that it can save hundreds, even thousands of dollars that result from a bad hire and/or post-hiring training classes! The testing helps weed out applicants that are not experienced or not up to par with the much needed skills. It is also a prudent way of minimizing the potential high cost associated with new hiring process.

Working in a supermarket is not brain surgery, but you want to make sure that the individual has basic skills that will adapt to the environment.
I feel that all of the above selection tools are among the best to use when hiring an individual for a supermarket.
I would use some of the same methods which included, checking references, aptitude test and a criminal background checks for the position in my final project but I would include interview process so as to get a face to face opportunity to meet the candidates.
There are various method used for interviewing a candidate applying for a job. An Example is structured interviews which usually have a set of questions that are asked to each applicant. They keep the flow of the interview in check and do not allow the interview to get off the mark of the questions. The structured interview method is basically a set of standardized questions based on the position description. A structured interview may assume a definite format involving:
??? charting a job-holders sequence of activities in performance
??? an inventory or questionnaire may be used
Care is needed to set up such interactions. A specialist analyst is not involved and participants need to know what they are doing, why and what is expected as a result. They may be intrained as interviewers and not structure the interview as recommended. Notes and records may be needed for subsequent analysis.
A structured interview may be akin to a staff appraisal or job evaluation interview carried out by a manager with a subordinate. The manager is the analyst. The position I will choose in my final project is a non-directive interview process. The position in question will vary from client to client. The person who fills this position will need to be very flexible and be able to probe others to find out what it is they are really trying to achieve on the job. The non-directive Interview method allows the interviewee the freedom to go in any direction that they feel. This will be helpful in determining whether applicants will be capable of handling a situation on the job.
Broad open-minded questions leave the door open for other things to emerge or come out that may not have come out in a structured environment. As a case manager it is your job to access the client and find out what their needs may be. By holding the non-directive interview you will be able to determine if the interviewee is able to do this.
Compiled below is a list of some possible interview questions that may be used for this position:

Tell us about yourself.
What is your short/long term work objective
Where would you like to be in 5 to 10 years
Why should we consider you rather then someone else for the position
What is your greatest weakness/strength
Why did you leave your last position
What did you think of your last boss
What interests you about the position
Can you work under pressure
What makes you qualified for this position
Why do you want to work here
Are you familiar with cash registers
What position are you looking for
What hours are you available to work
What are the attributes of a good leader
How well do you adapt to new situations you have not encountered before
Why should I hire you

Trying to find the right candidate to fill this position might be difficult depending upon who your potential candidates are. First a summary of all the candidates should be drawn up. In this particular position you need to be a people oriented person and you need to be able to at least show that you care even if you don??™t. The personality test will help to give you some background about who this person is.
Other things to consider are if the person has the right background or qualifications. Has the candidate worked with others in the past Or have they been just been in an office environment with no customer contact. Are they a good fit with the current staff members Do they have the right credentials All of this information must be gathered on the potential candidates and a decision must be reached based upon all these factors.
Reaching the final decision is usually left up to the Manager of the hiring department. Once the decision is made then the offer of employment is also extended to the candidate. If the candidate accepts then you hope that a sound decision has been made based on all your hiring selection tools that are employed in the process and success is achieved.
In a nutshell, interviewing is based exclusively on job duties and requirements critical.

Bohlander, G. W., & Snell, S. A., (2007). Managing human resources (14th ed.). Florence, KY: Thomson Learning Higher Education.

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